Greek Cultural Periods > Archaic Period

Archaic Period

Background

Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC,[1] following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period. The period began with a massive increase in the Greek population[2] and a series of significant changes which rendered the Greek world at the end of the eighth century as entirely unrecognisable as compared to its beginning.[3] According to Anthony Snodgrass, the Archaic period in ancient Greece was bounded by two revolutions in the Greek world. It began with a "structural revolution" which "drew the political map of the Greek world" and established the poleis, the distinctively Greek city-states, and ended with the intellectual revolution of the Classical period.[4]The Archaic period saw developments in Greek politics, economics, international relations, warfare, and culture. It laid the groundwork for the Classical period, both politically and culturally. It was in the Archaic period that the Greek alphabet developed, that the earliest surviving Greek literature was composed, that monumental sculpture and red-figure pottery began in Greece, and that the hoplite became the core of Greek armies. In Athens, the earliest institutions of the democracy were implemented under Solon, and the reforms of Cleisthenes at the end of the Archaic period brought in Athenian democracy as it was during the Classical period. In Sparta, many of the institutions credited to the reforms of Lycurgus were introduced during the period, the region of Messenia was brought under Spartan control, helotage was introduced, and the Peloponnesian League was founded, making Sparta the dominant power in the region.Historiography[edit]Photograph of ancient ruins.The gymnasium and palaestra at Olympia, the site of the ancient Olympic games. The Archaic period conventionally dates from the first Olympiad.The word "archaic" derives from the Greek word archaios, which means "old". It refers to the period in ancient Greek history before the classical. The period is generally considered to have lasted from the beginning of the eighth century BC until the beginning of the fifth century BC,[5] with the foundation of the Olympic Games in 776 BC and the Second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC forming notional start and end dates.[6] The Archaic period was long considered to have been less important and historically interesting than the classical period, and was primarily studied as a precursor to it.[7] More recently, however, Archaic Greece has come to be studied for its own achievements.[4] With this reassessment of the significance of the Archaic period, some scholars have objected to the term "archaic", due to its connotations in English of being primitive and outdated. No term which has been suggested to replace it has gained widespread currency, however, and the term is still in use.[5]Much of our evidence about the classical period of ancient Greece comes from written histories, such as Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War. By contrast, we have no such evidence from the Archaic period. We have written accounts of life in the period in the form of poetry, and epigraphical evidence, including parts of law codes, inscriptions on votive offerings, and epigrams inscribed on tombs. However, none of this evidence is in the quantity for which we have it in the classical period.[8] What is lacking in written evidence, however, is made up for in the rich archaeological evidence from the Archaic Greek world. Indeed, where much of our knowledge of classical Greek art comes from later Roman copies, all of the surviving Archaic Greek art is original.[9]Other sources for the period are the traditions recorded by later Greek writers such as Herodotus.[8] However, these traditions are not part of any form of history as we would recognise it today; those transmitted by Herodotus he recorded whether or not he believed them to be accurate.[10] Indeed, Herodotus does not even record any dates before 480 BC.[11]

Polis (City-State)

See Polis (City-State)

Politically, the Archaic period saw the development of the polis (or city-state) as the predominant unit of political organisation. Many cities throughout Greece came under the rule of autocratic leaders, called "tyrants." The period also saw the development of law and systems of communal decision-making, with the earliest evidence for law codes and constitutional structures dating to the period. By the end of the Archaic period, both the Athenian and Spartan constitutions seem to have developed into their classical forms.The Archaic period saw significant urbanisation, and the development of the concept of the polis as it was used in classical Greece. By Solon's time, if not before, the word "polis" had acquired its classical meaning,[12] and though the emergence of the polis as a political community was still in progress at this point,[13] the polis as an urban centre was a product of the eighth century.[14] However, the polis did not become the dominant form of socio-political organisation throughout Greece in the Archaic period, and in the north and west of the country it did not become dominant until some way into the classical period.[15]The urbanisation process in Archaic Greece known as "synoecism" – the amalgamation of several small settlements into a single urban centre – took place in much of Greece in the eighth century BC. Both Athens and Argos, for instance, began to coalesce into single settlements around the end of that century.[14] In some settlements, this physical unification was marked by the construction of defensive city walls, as was the case in Smyrna by the middle of the eighth century, and Corinth by the middle of the seventh.[14]It seems that the evolution of the polis as a socio-political structure, rather than a simply geographical one, can be attributed to this urbanisation, as well as a significant population increase in the eighth century. These two factors created a need for a new form of political organisation, as the political systems in place at the beginning of the Archaic period quickly became unworkable.[14]

Athens

See Athens

Sparta

See Sparta

Sparta's constitution took on the form it would have in the classical period during the eighth century BC.[30] The First Messenian War, probably taking place from approximately 740 to 720 BC,[31] saw the strengthening of the powers of the Gerousia against the assembly,[32] and the enslavement of the Messenian population as Helots.[33] Around the same time, the ephors gained the powers to restrict the actions of the kings of Sparta.[30]

Greek Colonization

See Greek Colonization

Greek population doubled during the eighth century, resulting in more and larger settlements than previously. This was part of a wider phenomenon of population growth across the Mediterranean region at this time, which may have been caused by a climatic shift that took place between 850 and 750, which made the region cooler and wetter. This led to the expansion of population into uncultivated areas of Greece and was probably also a driver for colonisation abroad.[53]Evidence from human remains shows that average age at death increased over the Archaic period, but there is no clear trend for other measures of health.[54] The size of houses gives some evidence for prosperity within society; in the eighth and seventh centuries, the average house size remained constant around 45-50 m², but the number of very large and very small houses increased, indicating increasing economic inequality. From the end of the seventh century, this trend reversed, with houses clustering closely around a growing average.[55]

Archaic Greek Military

See Archaic Greek Military

Archaic Greek Economy

See Archaic Greek Economy

Archaic Greek Agriculture

See Archaic Greek Agriculture

Archaic Greek Art

See Archaic Greek Art

Archaic Greek Sculpture

See Archaic Greek Sculpture

Archaic Greek Pottery

See Archaic Greek Pottery

Archaic Greek Literature

See Archaic Greek Literature

Sources

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

Jump up ^ Shapiro 2007, pp. 1–2Jump up ^ Snodgrass 1980, p. 19Jump up ^ Shapiro 2007, p. 2^ Jump up to: a b Snodgrass 1980, p. 13^ Jump up to: a b Shapiro 2007, p. 1Jump up ^ Davies 2009, pp. 3–4Jump up ^ Snodgrass 1980, p. 11^ Jump up to: a b Shapiro 2007, p. 5^ Jump up to: a b Shapiro 2007, p. 6Jump up ^ Osborne 2009, p. 4Jump up ^ Osborne 2009, p. 5Jump up ^ Hall 2007, p. 41Jump up ^ Hall 2007, p. 45^ Jump up to: a b c d Hall 2007, p. 43Jump up ^ Hall 2007, p. 40Jump up ^ Boardman & Hammond 1982, p. xvJump up ^ Andrewes 1982, pp. 368–9Jump up ^ Andrewes 1982, pp. 364–5Jump up ^ Andrewes 1982, p. 368^ Jump up to: a b Cantarella 2005, p. 239Jump up ^ Andrewes 1982, p. 371^ Jump up to: a b Andrewes 1982, p. 377Jump up ^ Andrewes 1982, p. 378Jump up ^ Andrewes 1982, p. 382^ Jump up to: a b Andrewes 1982, p. 384Jump up ^ Andrewes 1982, p. 385Jump up ^ Andrewes 1982, p. 365Jump up ^ Andrewes 1982, p. 387Jump up ^ Andrewes 1982, pp. 388–9^ Jump up to: a b Hammond 1982, p. 329Jump up ^ Hammond 1982, p. 323Jump up ^ Hammond 1982, pp. 329–330Jump up ^ Hammond 1982, p. 328^ Jump up to: a b Boardman & Hammond 1982, p. xiiiJump up ^ Antonaccio 2007, p. 203Jump up ^ Antonaccio 2007, p. 206Jump up ^ Antonaccio 2007, pp. 206–207^ Jump up to: a b Antonaccio 2007, p. 207Jump up ^ Antonaccio 2007, p. 208Jump up ^ Antonaccio 2007, p. 202Jump up ^ Parker 1998, p. 150Jump up ^ Drews 1972, p. 132Jump up ^ Drews 1972, p. 135Jump up ^ Drews 1972, p. 129Jump up ^ Drews 1972, p. 130Jump up ^ Drews 1972, p. 144Jump up ^ Hammond 1982, p. 343Jump up ^ Parker 1998, p. 152Jump up ^ Parker 1998, p. 155Jump up ^ Parker 1998, p. 164Jump up ^ Anderson 2005, pp. 173–174Jump up ^ Anderson 2005, p. 177Jump up ^ Morris 2009, pp. 66-67Jump up ^ Morris 2009, pp. 69Jump up ^ Morris 2009, pp. 70Jump up ^ Osborne 2009, pp. 26–28; van Wees 2009, p. 450Jump up ^ van Wees 2009, pp. 450–451Jump up ^ Osborne 2009, p. 34Jump up ^ Osborne 2009, p. 27; van Wees 2009, pp. 450–451Jump up ^ Morris 2009, pp. 67Jump up ^ van Wees 2009, pp. 445–450Jump up ^ van Wees 2009, pp. 451–452Jump up ^ Morris 2009, pp. 66-67Jump up ^ Markoe 1996, p. 54Jump up ^ Markoe 1996, p. 60^ Jump up to: a b Markoe 1996, p. 55Jump up ^ Boardman & Hammond 1982, p. xivJump up ^ Markoe 1996, pp. 55–57^ Jump up to: a b Jeffery 1982, p. 823Jump up ^ Jeffery 1982, p. 282Jump up ^ Cook 1979, p. 153Jump up ^ Kroll 2012, pp. 33–37Jump up ^ Konuk 2012, pp. 48–49Jump up ^ Sheedy 2012, pp. 106, 110; Van Alfen 2012, p. 89; Psoma 2012, p. 166ff.Jump up ^ Rutter 2012, p. 128ff.; Fischer-Bossert 2012, p. 143ff.Jump up ^ Psoma 2012, p. 157ff.Jump up ^ Sheedy 2012, p. 107; Van Alfen 2012, p. 89Jump up ^ Konuk 2012, pp. 43–48Jump up ^ For instance, the city of Phocaea issued coins depicting a seal (phoke, in Greek)Jump up ^ Spier 1990, pp. 115–124Jump up ^ Kroll 2012, p. 38Jump up ^ Martin 1996, pp. 267–280Jump up ^ Martin 1996, p. 261; in more detail: Martin 1986Jump up ^ Boardman 1982, p. 448^ Jump up to: a b Boardman 1982, p. 450Jump up ^ Boardman 1982, p. 447Jump up ^ Osborne 1998, p. 76Jump up ^ Hurwit 2007, pp. 269–70^ Jump up to: a b Hurwit 2007, p. 274Jump up ^ Hurwit 2007, p. 271Jump up ^ Osborne 1998, p. 75Jump up ^ Hurwit 2007, pp. 271–2Jump up ^ Hurwit 2007, p. 272Jump up ^ Hurwit 2007, p. 276Jump up ^ Hurwit 2007, p. 277Jump up ^ Boardman 1982, p. 451Jump up ^ Osborne 1998, p. 29Jump up ^ Osborne 1998, p. 30Jump up ^ Template:Harvn^ Jump up to: a b Markoe 1996, p. 53Jump up ^ Osborne 1998, p. 46Jump up ^ Hurwit 2007, pp. 278–9Jump up ^ Hurwit 2007, p. 279Jump up ^ Snodgrass 1980, p. 15Jump up ^ Jeffery 1982, p. 819Jump up ^ Jeffery 1982, p. 822^ Jump up to: a b c Jeffery 1982, p. 831Jump up ^ Jeffery 1982, p. 382Jump up ^ Hunt 2007, p. 108Jump up ^ Hunt 2007, p. 111Jump up ^ Hunt 2007, figure 5.1^ Jump up to: a b Snodgrass 1965, p. 110Jump up ^ Snodgrass 1965, p. 111^ Jump up to: a b c Hunt 2007, p. 124Jump up ^ Snodgrass 1965, p. 115BibliographyAnderson, Greg (2005). "Before Turannoi Were Tyrants: Rethinking a Chapter of Early Greek History". Classical Antiquity. 24 (2).Andrewes, A. (1982). "The Growth of the Athenian State". In Boardman, John; Hammond, N.G.L. The Cambridge Ancient History. III.iii (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Antonaccio, Carla M. (2007). "Colonization: Greece on the Move 900–480". In Shapiro, H.A. The Cambridge Companion to Archaic Greece. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Boardman, John (1982). "The Material Culture of Archaic Greece". In Boardman, John; Hammond, N.G.L. The Cambridge Ancient History. III.iii (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Boardman, John; Hammond, N.G.L. (1982). "Preface". In Boardman, John; Hammond, N.G.L. The Cambridge Ancient History. III.iii (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Cantarella, Eva (2005). "Gender, Sexuality, and Law". In Gagarin, Michael; Cohen, David. The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Cook, R.M. (1979). "Archaic Greek Trade: Three Conjectures". The Journal of Hellenic Studies. 99.Davies, John K. (2009). "The Historiography of Archaic Greece". In Raaflaub, Kurt A.; van Wees, Hans. A Companion to Archaic Greece. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 3–21. ISBN 9781118451380.Drews, Robert (1972). "The First Tyrants in Greece". Historia: Zeitschrift fur Alte Geschichte. 21 (2).Fischer-Bossert, Wolfgang (2012). "The Coinage of Sicily". In Metcalfe, William E. The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press. pp. 142–156. ISBN 9780195305746.Grant, Michael (1988). The Rise of the Greeks. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.Hall, Jonathan M. (2007). "Polis, Community, and Ethnic Identity". In Shapiro, H.A. The Cambridge Companion to Archaic Greece. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Hammond, N.G.L (1982). "The Peloponnese". In Boardman, John; Hammond, N.G.L. The Cambridge Ancient History. III.iii (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Hunt, Peter (2007). "Military Forces". In Sabin, Philip; van Wees, Hans; Whitby, Michael. The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Hurwit, Jeffrey M. (2007). "The Human Figure in Early Greek Sculpture and Vase Painting". In Shapiro, H.A. The Cambridge Companion to Archaic Greece. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Jeffery, L.H. (1982). "Greek Alphabetic Writing". In Boardman, John; Edwards, I.E.S.; Hammond, N.G.L.; Sollberger, E. The Cambridge Ancient History. III.i (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Konuk, Koray (2012). "Asia Minor to the Ionian Revolt". In Metcalfe, William E. The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press. pp. 43–60. ISBN 9780195305746.Kroll, John E. (2012). "The Monetary Background of Early Coinage". In Metcalfe, William E. The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press. pp. 33–42. ISBN 9780195305746.Markoe, Glenn (1996). "The Emergence of Orientalizing in Greek Art: Some Observations on the Interchange between Greeks and Phoenicians in the 8th and 7th Centuries B.C.". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 301.Martin, T. R. (1986). Sovereignty and Coinage in Classical Greece. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691035802.Martin, T. R. (1996). "Why Did the Greek "Polis" Originally Need Coins?". Historia: Zeitschrift Für Alte Geschichte (45(3)): 257–283.Morris, Ian (2009). "The Eighth Century Revolution". In Raaflaub, Kurt A.; van Wees, Hans. A Companion to Archaic Greece. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 64–80. ISBN 9781118451380.Osborne, Robin (1998). Archaic and Classical Greek Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192842022.Osborne, Robin (2009). Greece in the Making: 1200–479 BC (2 ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 9780203880173.Parker, Victor (1998). "Τυραννος. The Semantics of a Political Concept from Archilochus to Aristotle". Hermes. 126 (2).Psoma, Selene (2012). "Greece and the Balkans to 360 B.C.". In Metcalfe, William E. The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press. pp. 157–172. ISBN 9780195305746.Rutter, N.K. (2012). "The Coinage of Italy". In Metcalfe, William E. The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press. pp. 128–140. ISBN 9780195305746.Shapiro, H.A. (2007). "Introduction". In Shapiro, H.A. The Cambridge Companion to Archaic Greece. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Sheedy, Kenneth (2012). "Aegina, the Cyclades, and Crete". In Metcalfe, William E. The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press. pp. 105–127. ISBN 9780195305746.Snodgrass, Anthony (1965). "The Hoplite Reform and History". The Journal for Hellenic Studies. 85.Snodgrass, Anthony (1980). Archaic Greece: The Age of Experiment. London Melbourne Toronto: J M Dent & Sons Ltd. ISBN 0-460-04338-2.Spier, J. (1990). "Emblems in Archaic Greece". Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies. 37: 107–130.Van Alfen, Peter G. (2012). "The Coinage of Athens, Sixth to First Century B.C.". In Metcalfe, William E. The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press. pp. 88–104. ISBN 9780195305746.Van Wees, Hans. (2009). "The Economy". In Raaflaub, Kurt A.; van Wees, Hans. A Companion to Archaic Greece. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 444–467. ISBN 9781118451380.Watson, Owen (1976). Owen Watson, eds. Longman modern English dictionary. Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-55512-9.Further reading[edit]George Grote, J. M. Mitchell, Max Cary, Paul Cartledge, A History of Greece: From the Time of Solon to 403 B.C., Routledge, 2001. ISBN 0-415-22369-5External links[edit]Archaic period: society, economy, politics, culture — The Foundation of the Hellenic World

Greek Cultural Periods

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