Geography > Black Sea

Black Sea

Background

Greek colonies along the north coast of the Black Sea in the 5th century BCE.Greek city-states began establishing colonies along the Black Sea coast of Crimea in the 7th or 6th century BCE.[1] Several colonies were established in the vicinity of the Kerch Strait, then known as the Cimmerian Bosporus. The density of colonies around the Cimmerian Bosporus was unusual for Greek colonization and reflected the importance of the area. The majority of these colonies were established by Ionians from the city of Miletus in Asia Minor.[2] By the mid-1st century BC the Bosporan Kingdom became a client state of the late Roman Republic, ushering in the era of Roman Crimea during the Roman Empire.Contents [hide]1Etymology2Greek colonies3In mythology4See also5References6External linksEtymology[edit]Fragment of a marble relief depicting a Kore, 3rd century BC, from Panticapaeum, Taurica (Crimea), Bosporan KingdomTaurica, Tauric Chersonese, and Tauris were names by which the Crimean Peninsula was known in classical antiquity and well into the early modern period. The Greeks named the region after its inhabitants, the Tauri: Ταυρικὴ Χερσόνησος (Taurikē Khersonesos) or Χερσόνησος Ταυρική (Khersonesos Taurikē), "Tauric peninsula" ("khersonesos" literally means "peninsula"). Chersonesus Taurica is the Latin version of the Greek name.Greek colonies[edit]The prytaneion of Panticapaeum, second century BCE.The earliest Greek colony, Panticapaeum (Ancient Greek: Παντικάπαιον Pantikápaion), founded in the late 7th or early 6th century BCE, was established as an apoikia of Miletus (that is, a true colony and not a mere entrepot).[2] This important city was situated on Mount Mithridat on the western side of the Cimmerian Bosporus, in the present-day city of Kerch. During the first centuries of the city's existence, imported Greek articles predominated: pottery, terracottas, and metal objects, probably from workshops in Rhodes, Corinth, Samos, and Athens (a style of Athenian vase found extensively at the site is named the Kerch style). Local production, imitated from the models, was carried on at the same time. Local potters imitated the Hellenistic bowls known as the Gnathia style as well as relief wares—Megarian bowls. The city minted silver coins from the 5th century BCE and gold and bronze coins from the 4th century BCE.[3] At its greatest extent it occupied 100 hectares (250 acres).[4]Greek Coin from Cherronesos in Crimea depicting Diotimus wearing the royal diadem . r., in exergue, ΧΕΡ ΔΙΟΤΙΜΟΥ Chersonesus in Crimea. 2nd century BCE.Other Milesian colonies on the Crimean side of the Cimmerian Bosporus included Theodosia, Kimmerikon, Tyritake, and Myrmekion. Theodosia (Ancient Greek: Θεοδοσία), present day Feodosia, was founded in the 6th century BCE according to archaeological evidence. It is first recorded in history as resisting the attacks of Satyrus, ruler of the Bosporan Kingdom, about 390 BCE. His successor Leucon transformed it into an important port for shipping wheat to Greece, especially to Athens.[5] Kimmerikon (Ancient Greek: Κιμμερικόν) was founded in the 5th century BCE on the southern shore of the Kerch Peninsula, at the western slope of Mount Opuk, roughly 50 kilometres (31 mi) southwest of Panticapaeum. Its name may refer to an earlier Cimmerian settlement on the site. Kimmerikon would become an important stronghold defending the Bosporan Kingdom from the Scythians.[6] Tyritake (Ancient Greek: Τυριτάκη) was situated in the eastern part of Crimea, about 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) south of Panticapaeum. It is tentatively identified with the ruins in the Kerch district of Kamysh-Burun (Arshintsevo), on the shore of the Cimmerian Bosporus. There are only few short mentions about Tyritake in ancient literary sources. Archaeological projects have established that the colony, founded about the mid-6th century BCE, specialized in crafts and viticulture. In the first centuries of the Common Era, fishing and wine production became the economic mainstay of the town. Myrmēkion (Ancient Greek: Μυρμήκιον) was situated on the shore of the Cimmerian Bosporus, 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) north of Panticapaeum. It was founded in the mid-6th century BCE as an independent polis, which soon became one of the richest in the region. In the 5th century BCE, the town specialized in winemaking and minted its own coinage. It was surrounded by towered walls, measuring some 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) thick.[7]Nymphaion (Ancient Greek: Νύμφαιον) was founded by colonists from Miletus’ rival Samos between 580 and 560 BCE. It was situated of about 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) south of Panticapaeum. There is no archaeological evidence for the presence of Scythians in the area before the city's founding.[8] The town issued its own coins and generally prospered in the period of classical antiquity from its control of the cereal trade. Athens chose Nymphaion as its principal military base in the region ca. 444 BCE and Gylon, the grandfather of Demosthenes, suffered banishment from Athens on charges that he had betrayed Nymphaeum during the Peloponnesian War. It was annexed to the Bosporan Kingdom by the end of the century.St. Vladimir's Cathedral overlooks the extensive excavations of Chersonesus.In the 5th century BCE, Dorians from Heraclea Pontica on the Black Sea coast of Asia Minor founded the sea port of Chersonesos in southwestern Crimea (outside modern Sevastopol). It was a site with good deep-water harbors located at the edge of the territory of the indigenous Taurians.[9] During much of the Classical Period, Chersonesus was a democracy ruled by a group of elected archons and a council called the Demiurgi. As time passed the government grew more oligarchic, with power concentrated in the hands of the archons. Up to the middle of the 4th century BCE, Chersonesos remained a small city. It then expanded to lands in northwest Crimea, incorporating the colony of Kerkinitida and constructing numerous fortifications.[10] In 2013, Chersonesus was listed as a World Heritage Site.Kerkinitida is the earliest colony in northwestern Taurica, located near present-day Yevpatoria. It was founded around the turn of the 6th-5th centuries BCE, possibly by Dorians of Herakleia Pontika, or by another unknown Ionian city-state. Until the middle of 4th century BCE the city was a small independent city–state, before being incorporated into the city-state of Chersonesos. In the 2nd century BCE Kerkinitida was captured by the Scythians, but later retaken in the second campaign of Diophantus. According to archeological finds, the city lasted until around the turn of the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE.[10]In mythology[edit]Orestes and Pylades brought before Iphigenia by Joseph Strutt.According to Greek mythology, Crimea is the place to which Iphigeneia was sent after the goddess Artemis rescued her from the human sacrifice her father was about to perform. Artemis swept the young princess off to the peninsula, where she became a priestess at her temple. Here, she was forced by the Taurian king Thoas to perform human sacrifices on any foreigners who came ashore. According to other historians, the Tauri were known for their savage rituals and piracy and were also the earliest indigenous peoples of the peninsula. The land of Tauris and its rumored customs of killing Greeks are also described by Herodotus in his histories, Book IV, 99–100 and 103.See also[edit]Colonies in antiquityGreeks in Russia and the Soviet UnionGreeks in UkraineHistory of CrimeaRoman CrimeaReferences[edit]Jump up ^ Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond (1959). A history of Greece to 322 B.C. Clarendon Press. p. 109. Retrieved 8 August 2013.^ Jump up to: a b Twardecki, Alfred. "The Bosporan Kingdom". Polish Archaeological Mission “Tyritake”. Retrieved 31 March 2014.Jump up ^ Sear, David R. (1978). Greek Coins and Their Values . Volume I: Europe (pp. 168-169). Seaby Ltd., London. ISBN 0 900652 46 2Jump up ^ "Panticapaeum". Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. Retrieved 18 February 2013.Jump up ^ "Feodosiya". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 30 March 2014.Jump up ^ The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (eds. Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald, Marian Holland McAllister).Jump up ^ "The official website of the Hermitage Museum archaeological expedition in Myrmekion" (in Russian). Retrieved 30 March 2014.Jump up ^ Zin'ko, Viktor N. (2006). "The Chora of Nymphaion (6th Century BC-6th Century AD)". In Bilde, Pia Guldager; Stolba, Vladimir F. Surveying the Greek Chora. The Black Sea Region in a Comparative Perspective. Black Sea Studies. 4. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press. pp. 289–308.Jump up ^ "University of Texas at Austin Institute of Classical Archaeology Chersonesos project". Retrieved 31 March 2014.^ Jump up to: a b "History and the monetary business of the antique cities of Tauria". Odessa Numismatics Museum.External links[edit]The Roman site at Charax (Russian)Lost Roman CityTauricaHigh resolution zoom-able Image of an antique map of the regionTaurica HistoryCoins of Olbia: Essay of Monetary Circulation of the North-western Black Sea Region in Antique Epoch. Киев, 1988. ISBN 5-12-000104-1.Coinage and Monetary Circulation in Olbia (6th century B.C. – 4th century A.D.) Odessa (2003). ISBN 966-96181-0-X.The City of Tyras. A Historical and Archaeological Essay. Одесса: Polis-Press, 1994).. ISBN 9785770745313One goal remained: We still needed to get to the murky bottom of the sea beyond 600 feet (185 meters). But the continental shelf drops off precipitously around 700 feet (200 meters), and the slopes are covered with debris from landslides. Northern Turkey lies on the Anatolian Fault, where earthquakes have been reshaping the land for millions of years. The very center of the sea, more than 7,000 feet (2,150 meters) deep, would be clear of landslides, but it would take so long to get there and to get in and out with the machines that it might not be worth the chase.Nevertheless, we steamed off to “Anoxia,” the sterile heart of darkness, where the plankton that had pranced in the spotlight at shallower depths were limp and simply falling. And here, in rough seas just two days before the expedition ended, our patience rewarded us. Li’l Herc, bumping in the underworld over a thousand feet (300 meters) below, sailed into what at first seemed like a mirage—a fourth wreck, standing tall and gloriously upright, its mast towering 35 feet (11 meters).We maneuvered the vehicle closer and saw no metal fittings or fasteners, no rigging, no canvas sails. Either from a very poor culture or from a very old one. It was about 45 feet (14 meters) long, hand-hewn, dusted with silt, and so well preserved in the anoxic water that marine archaeologists are still reeling.A late Roman or early Byzantine vessel from about A.D. 410-520—a 1,500-year-old ship with wood that looked as if it had been hewed yesterday. No one had ever seen a wooden ship from the classical world in this state of preservation. The cargo it carried would be intact too—and filled with answers to the conjectures of a generation of historians and nautical archaeologists.“The find is extraordinary!” said Cheryl Ward. “There’s no decay. I can see hand-carved stanchions and a rudder post. The ship looks as if it just left the dock.”Willard Bascom had been right. The bottom of the Black Sea, anathema to life, is a balm for wooden ships. And think: Before the tumult of the flood the lake was fresh and thus without wood-boring mollusks. The fuller picture then is wonderfully bizarre: the possibility that every ship that sailed and perished on the Black Sea, from humankind’s earliest wanderings to our own time—perhaps 50,000 separate wrecks—lies preserved. In poison. Robert D. BallardFlooded in 30 years gradual flow , meter or 2 per year15,000 - 7,200 yaFrsh water species Dreissona rostriformis vas distinctaa Turrica caspia lincta7,200 ya to presentM. galloprovincalsothersToWilliam Ryan Columbia University

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