Greek History > Megara
MegaraΜέγαρα2010 Dimos Megareon.svgMegara is located in Greece MegaraMegaraLocation within the region [show]Coordinates: 38°00′N 23°20′ECoordinates: 38°00′N 23°20′ECountryGreeceAdministrative regionAtticaRegional unitWest AtticaGovernment • MayorGrigorios StamoulisArea • Municipality330.1 km2 (127.5 sq mi) • Municipal unit322.2 km2 (124.4 sq mi)Elevation4 m (13 ft)Population (2011) • Municipality36,924 • Municipality density110/km2 (290/sq mi) • Municipal unit28,591 • Municipal unit density89/km2 (230/sq mi)Time zoneEET (UTC+2) • Summer (DST)EEST (UTC+3)Postal code191 00Area code(s)22960Websitewww.megara.grMegara (/ˈmɛɡərə/; Greek: Μέγαρα, pronounced [ˈmeɣara]) is a historic town and a municipality in West Attica, Greece. It lies in the northern section of the Isthmus of Corinth opposite the island of Salamis, which belonged to Megara in archaic times, before being taken by Athens. Megara was one of the four districts of Attica, embodied in the four mythic sons of King Pandion II, of whom Nisos was the ruler of Megara. Megara was also a trade port, its people using their ships and wealth as a way to gain leverage on armies of neighboring poleis. Megara specialized in the exportation of wool and other animal products including livestock such as horses. It possessed two harbors, Pegae, to the west on the Corinthian Gulf and Nisaea, to the east on the Saronic Gulf of the Aegean Sea.Contents [hide]1Early history2Geography3Municipality4Towns and villages5Historical population6Notable people7Facilities8See also9Notes10External linksEarly historyAccording to Pausanias, the Megarians said that their town owed its origin to Car, the son of Phoroneus, who built the citadel called 'Caria' and the temples of Demeter called Megara, from which the place derived its name.In historical times, Megara was an early dependency of Corinth, in which capacity colonists from Megara founded Megara Hyblaea, a small polis north of Syracuse in Sicily. Megara then fought a war of independence with Corinth, and afterwards founded Chalcedon in 685 BC, as well as Byzantium (c. 667 BC).Megara is known to have early ties with Miletos, in the region of Caria in Asia Minor. According to some scholars, they had built up a “colonisation alliance”. In the 7th/6th century BCE these two cities acted in concordance with each other.Both cities acted under the leadership and sanction of an Apollo oracle. Megara cooperated with that of Delphi. Miletos had her own oracle of Apollo Didymeus Milesios in Didyma. Also, there are many parallels in the political organisation of both cities.In the late 7th century BC Theagenes established himself as tyrant of Megara by slaughtering the cattle of the rich to win over the poor. During the second Persian invasion of Greece (480-479 BC) Megara fought alongside the Spartans and Athenians at crucial battles such as Salamis and Plataea.Megara's defection from the Spartan-dominated Peloponnesian League (c. 460 BC) became one of the causes of the First Peloponnesian War (460 BC - c. 445 BC). By the terms of the Thirty Years' Peace of 446-445 BC Megara was returned to the Peloponnesian League.In the (second) Peloponnesian War (c. 431 BC-404 BC), Megara was an ally of Sparta. The Megarian decree is considered to be one of several contributing "causes" of the Peloponnesian War. Athens issued the Megarian decree with the aim of choking out the Megarian economy. The decree banned Megarian merchants from territory controlled by Athens. The Athenians claimed that they were responding to the Megarians' desecration of the Hiera Orgas, a sacred precinct in the border region between the two states.Arguably the most famous citizen of Megara in antiquity was Byzas, the legendary founder of Byzantium in the 7th century BC. The 6th-century BC poet Theognis also came from Megara. In the early 4th century BC, Euclid of Megara founded the Megarian school of philosophy which flourished for about a century, and which became famous for the use of logic and dialectic.In 243 BC Megara expelled its Macedonian garrison and joined the Achaean League, but in 223 BC the Megarians left the Achaeans and joined the Boeotian League.The Megarians were proverbial for their generosity in building and endowing temples. Saint Jerome reports "There is a common saying about the Megarians […:] 'They build as if they are to live forever; they live as if they are to die tomorrow.'"