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Rhodes

The various ancient Greek calendars began in most states of ancient Greece between Autumn and Winter except for the Attic calendar, which began in Summer.The Greeks, as early as the time of Homer, appear to have been familiar with the division of the year into the twelve lunar months but no intercalary month Embolimos or day is then mentioned. Independent of the division of a month into days, it was divided into periods according to the increase and decrease of the moon. Thus, the first day or new moon was called Noumenia. The month in which the year began, as well as the names of the months, differed among the states, and in some parts even no names existed for the months, as they were distinguished only numerically, as the first, second, third, fourth month, etc.Of primary importance for the reconstruction of the regional Greek calendars is the calendar of Delphi, because of the numerous documents found there recording the manumission of slaves, many of which are dated both in the Delphian and in a regional calendar.Contents [hide]1Calendars by region1.1Aetolian1.2Argolian1.3Attic1.4Boeotian1.5Corinthian1.6Cretan1.7Delphic1.8Elian1.9Epidaurian1.10Laconian1.11Locris1.12Macedonian1.13Rhodian1.14Sicilian1.15Thessalian2See also3References3.1Citations3.2Bibliography4External linksCalendars by region[edit]Aetolian[edit]The months of the Aetolian calendar have been presented by Daux (1932) based on arguments by Nititsky (1901) based on synchronisms in manumission documents found at Delphi (dated to the 2nd century BC).[1] The month names are:Prokuklios - ΠροκύκλιοςAthanaios - ἈθαναίοςBoukatios - ΒουκάτιοςDios - ΔιόςEuthaios - ἙυθυαίοςHomoloios - ὉμολώιοςHermaios - ἙρμαίοςDionusios - ΔιονύσιοςAgueios - ἈγύειοςHippodromos - ἹπποδρόμιοςLaphraios - ΛαφραίοςPanamos - ΠάναμοςThe intercalary month was Dios, attested as Dios embolimos in SEG SVI 344, equivalent to Delphian Poitropoios ho deuteros. The month Boukatios corresponds to Delphian Daidaphorios, while Delphian Boukatios is Aetolian Panamos.Argolian[edit]Ermaios - ΕρμαίοςArneios - Αρνείος---Panamos - ΠάναμοςAguieos - ΑγυιέοςKarneios - Κάρνειος----Attic[edit]See Attic calendarHekatombaion - ἙκατομβαιώνMetageitnion - ΜεταγειτνιώνBoedromion - ΒοηδρομιώνPyanepsion - ΠυανεψιώνMaimakterion - ΜαιμακτηριώνPoseideon - Ποσιδεών (later Ποσειδεών)Gamelion - ΓαμηλιώνAnthesterion - ἈνθεστηριώνElaphebolion - ἙλαφηβολιώνMounichion - Μουνυχιών (later Μουνιχιών)Thargelion - ΘαργηλιώνSkirophorion - ΣκιροφοριώνBoeotian[edit]Bucatios - ΒουκάτιοςHermaios - ἙρμαίοςProstaterios - ΠροστατήριοςAgrionios - ἈγριώνιοςHomoloios - ὉμολώιοςTheilouthios - ΘειλούθιοςHippodromios - ἹπποδρόμιοςPanamos - ΠάναμοςPamboiotios - ΠαμβοιώτιοςDamatrios - ΔαμάτριοςAlalkomenios or Alkumenios - Ἀλαλκομένιος or Ἀλκυμένιος-Corinthian[edit]Further information: Antikythera mechanismThe Corinthian months and their order is known from the sequence on the dial of the Antikythera mechanism [2][3]Phoinikaios - ΦοινικαίοςKraneios - ΚράνειοςLanotropios, Heliotropios or Haliotropios - ΛανοτρόπιοςMachaneus - ΜαχανεύςDodekateus - ΔωδεκατεύςEukleios - ΕύκλειοςArtemisios - ἈρτεμίσιοςPsydros - ΨυδρεύςGamilios - ΓαμείλιοςAgrianios - ἈγριάνιοςPanamos - ΠάναμοςApellaios - ΑπελλαίοςCretan[edit]ThesmophorionHermaiosEimanMatarchiosAgyiosDioscourosTheodosiosPontosRhabinthiosHyperberetosNecysiosBasiliosDelphic[edit]Bucatios - ΒουκάτιοςHeraios - ἩραίοςApellaios - Ἀπελλαίος-Dadaphorios - ΔαδαφόριοςPoitropios - ΠοιτρόπιοςBysios - ΒύσιοςArtemisios - ἈρτεμίσιοςHeracleios - ἩράκλειοςBoathoos - ΒοαθόοςIlaios - ΙλαίοςTheoxenios - ΘεοξένιοςElian[edit]-Apollonios - ἈπολλώνιοςParthenios - ΠαρθένιοςAlphioios - ἈλφιοίοςAthanaios - ἈθαναίοςThuios - Θυΐος-Diosthuos - Διόσθυος-Elaphios - Ελάφιος---Epidaurian[edit]Azosios - ΑζόσιοςKarneios - ΚάρνειοςPraratios - ΠραράτιοςErmaios - ΕρμαίοςGamos - ΓάμοςTeleos - ΤέλεοςPosidaios - ΠοσίδαιοςArtamisios - ΑρταμίσιοςAgrianios - ΑγριάνιοςPanamos - ΠάναμοςKuklios - ΚύκλιοςApellaios - ΑπελλαίοςLaconian[edit]Panamos - ΠάναμοςHerasios - ἩράσιοςApellaios - ἈπελλαίοςDiosthyos - Διόσθυος-Eleusinios - ΕλευσίνιοςGerastios - ΓεράστιοςArtemisios - ἈρτεμίσιοςDelphinios - ΔελφίνιοςPhleiasios - ΦλειάσιοςHecatombeus - ἙκατομβεύςKarneios - ΚάρνειοςLocris[edit]A number of Locrian calendars are recorded, but only from the 2nd century BC. The Ozolian Locris for practical reasons also had a federal calendar which simply enumerated months from one to twelve. The first month (Protos) corresponds Delphian Boukatios, and the remaining months correspond in sequence to the regular sequence of Delphian months. Separate month names are recorded from the Locrian cities of Amphissa, Physkos, Oianthea, Tritea and Tolophon.[4]Macedonian[edit]See Macedonian calendarDios - ΔίοςApellaios - ἈπελλαῖοςAudunaios or Audnaios - Αὐδυναῖος or ΑὐδναῖοςPeritios - ΠερίτιοςDystros - ΔύστροςXandikos or Xanthikos - Ξανδικός or ΞανθικόςArtemisios or Artamitios - Ἀρτεμίσιος or ἈρταμίτιοςDaisios - ΔαίσιοςPanemos or Panamos - Πάνημος or ΠάναμοςLoios - ΛώιοςGorpiaios - ΓορπιαῖοςHyperberetaios - ὙπερβερεταῖοςRhodian[edit]on the Rhodian calendar[5]Agrianios - ἈγριάνιοςBadromios - ΒαδρόμιοςTheudasios - ΘευδάσιοςDalios - ΔάλιοςArtamitios - ἈρταμίτιοςPanamos and Panamos embolimos - ΠάναμοςPedageitnyos - ΠεδαγειτνύοςHyacynthios - ὙακίνθιοςKarneios - ΚάρνειοςThesmophorios - ΘεσμοφόριοςSminthios - ΣμίνθιοςDiosthyos - ΔιόσθυοςSicilian[edit]ThesmophoriosDalios-Agrianios-TheudasiosArtamitios-BadromiosHyacinthiosCarneiosPanamosThessalian[edit]The Thessalian calendar was standardised only in the Roman era. Previously, all poleis had their own calendars based on their respective festivals.[6]Itonios - ἸτῶνιοςPanemos - ΠάνημοςThemistios - ΘεμίστιοςAgagylios - ἈγαγύλιοςApollonios - ἈπολλῶνιοςHermaios - ἙρμαῖοςLeschanorios - ΛεσχανόριοςAphrios - ἊφριοςThyios - ΘυίοςHomoloios - ὉμολῶιοςHippodromios - ἹπποδρόμιοςPhyllikos - ΦυλλικόςSee also[edit]Ancient Greek astronomyThe Roman, Julian, & Byzantine calendars, which succeeded theseReferences[edit]Citations[edit]Jump up ^ cited after Samuel (1972:76f.)Jump up ^ Freeth, Tony; Jones, Alexander; Steele, John M.; Bitsakis, Yanis (31 July 2008). "Calendars with Olympiad display and eclipse prediction on the Antikythera Mechanism" (PDF). Nature. 454 (7204): 614–7. Bibcode:2008Natur.454..614F. doi:10.1038/nature07130. PMID 18668103. Retrieved 20 May 2014.Jump up ^ Freeth, T (2009). "Decoding an Ancient Computer". Scientific American. 301 (6): 76–83. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1209-76. PMID 20058643.Jump up ^ Samuel (1972:76f.)Jump up ^ Origines kalendarlae hellenicae [1] by Edward GreswellJump up ^ Cult and koinon in Hellenistic Thessaly by Denver Graninger, 87-114.Bibliography[edit]Alan Edouard Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology: Calendars and Years in Classical Antiquity, Volume 1, Part 7, C.H.Beck, 1972.Danezis Manos & Theodosiou Stratos, The Odyssey of the Calendars, 1st Book (in Greek), 1995External links[edit]Greek Calendarium Dictionary of Greek and Roman AntiquitiesTime Measurements http://www.mlahanas.de/

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